Terminalia arjuna, commonly known as Arjuna in ayurveda. Its bark decoction is being used in the Indian subcontinent for anginal pain, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and dyslipidemia, based on the observations of ancient physicians for centuries.
Effect of Terminalia arjuna on angina pectoris, congestive heart failure and left ventricular mass was studied in patients of myocardial infarction with angina and/or ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Bark stem powder of T. arjuna, was administered patients of postmyocardial infarction angina and patients of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Patients were also on conventional treatment comprising of nitrates, aspirin and/or calcium channel blockers. Significant reduction in anginal frequency was noted .However, patients showed significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction and reduction in left ventricular mass on echocardiography following three months of therapy. Patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy showed significant symptomatic relief in coronary heart failure .Prolonged administration of T. arjuna did not show any adverse effects on renal, hepatic and haematological parameters.
Punarnava(Boerhavia diffusa)- possesses significant antihypertensive properties that help keep high blood pressure in check. Moreover, it is a diuretic, which helps increase renal blood flow that further contributes to its antihypertensive actions. No doubt about the Punarnava, which is majorly known for its anti-endemic property, but it also has a potential cardioprotective action due to which it protects the damage of the heart. Punarnava is nephroprotective; it improves kidney function by reducing the urea and creatinine levels in the blood. In addition to this, due to its lithotriptic action, it further helps to reduce kidney stone problems. Punarnava reduces bilirubin level to prevent jaundice. Punarnava is beneficial in maintaining blood sugar levels. The mechanism involves reducing the starch breakdown into glucose and thereby preventing the reduction of blood sugar. The bioactive compounds present in the extracts of Punarnava help prevent body weight gain and it helps reduce the cholesterol level in the blood. Due to a mild laxative property of Punarnava is a mild laxative; it helps in flushing out toxins from the body without the loss of essential nutrients and minerals. The administration of Punarnava powder helps in electrolytic balancing of ions in the plasma, which controls the movement of water between cells and their surroundings.
Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris)- Tribulus terrestris, commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts.